The Sacred Door Project

  1. Introduction

The historical importance of poetry in the Arabian Peninsula precedes the rise of Islam.

The Arabs in the Age of Ignorance ( Jāhiliyyah) would carve the best poetry on canvases that were hung on the walls of the Kaʿbah for all to witness. Why was poetry so important to their civilization and sociopolitical context? In its conception and prior to the rise of Islam, the Arabic language had already formed a highly poetic tradition. Poetry resembled and expressed the philosophical and mystical nature of the people and their socio-political circumstances. Moreover, poetry was the primary means of communication and expression.

With a closer look at the epistemology of the word “poetry,” in English “poetry” is derived from the Greek word “poesis:” to make or compose. However, in Arabic, the word for poetry “shi’r” takes on a much deeper meaning altogether: awareness, consciousness, or knowledge. This is just one logical reason why poetry came prior to the invention of prose. Poetry was a means of understanding oneself as well as expressing what could not be easily expressed otherwise. Furthermore, poetry has always been a means to obtaining a deep philosophical and spiritual purpose on this earth — as an instinctive need to connect with the inner self. Once the inner self was unlocked, one was better able to contribute to society and help others.

With the coming of Islam, poetry represented the innate urge of mankind to connect with a higher purpose, i.e., God Himself, and achieve self-purification. The character of poetry is preserved in the sacred scripture and the origin of the language of the Qurʾān. The verbatim word of the Qurʾān was revealed in a manner that the Arabs would connect with most strongly. The Qurʾān is highly poetical and even reveals the sociopolitical atmosphere of the time. Similarly, wherever Islam went, its qualities manifested themselves in that particular region through poetry.

Qurʾān, poetry, philosophy, and mysticism all go together, and they are key elements to uncovering the core of human nature and one’s relationship with the Creator.

This paper will reveal the relationship between the Qurʾān and poetry by first comparing and contrasting the poetic influence on the Qurʾān with the Qurʾānic influence on poetry. Then this paper will examine the nature of poetry from prominent Twelver Shīʿah poets from the sixth to ninth centuries including the figures Diʿbil ibn ʿAlī al-Khuzāʿī (d. 860), Kumayt bin Zayd al-Asadī (d. 743), and Farazdaq (d. 730). These poets were tremendously influenced by their relationship with the Shīʿah Imāms of their lifetimes as well as the Qurʾānic values and verses the Imāms so commonly preached. These influences are evident throughout their poetic works and open the door to the discussion on Shīʿah theology, mysticism, and philosophy as a means of expressing spirituality in Islamic society. Across the Shīʿah belief system, poetry has been a means of achieving guidance and light from the Qurʾān and divine figures.

The Qurʾān is commonly viewed in comparison to poetry, or poetry in its highest form. While this perspective is not entirely accurate according to the Qurʾānic principles, poetry has indeed become its own methodology to communicate with God. Poetry is the manifestation of seeking the pureness of the self to obtain closeness to God. Contemporary poetry has become a means of reconnecting with these Islamic traditions and a medium of spirituality and expression. Indeed, the Qurʾān is a higher form of divine poetry.

  1. The Qurʾānic Nature of Poetry A. Poetry in the Qurʾān

What is the exact relationship between the Qurʾān and poetry? On the one hand, the Qurʾān is a holy miracle. The Qurʾān is comprised of God’s words as sent down to the Prophet of Islam (d. 632). On the other hand, poetry is composed of words that are authored by the human mind and intellect. How can the infallible words of God be compared to the words of fallible beings? How can the Creator be compared to the creations?

The Qurʾān itself discusses this issue of the relationship between the Qurʾān and poetry. In fact, in verse 224 of the 26th Chapter of the Qurʾān, “The Poets” (Surah Ash-Shu’ara), God

states “نوواغلا مُُهعُبّتَيءارُعَشلاّوَ.” This verse is translated as, “As for the poets, [only] the perverse follow them.” [1]The poets are depicted as vagabonds who “wander in every valley,” seemingly with aimless purpose.”[2] God further diminishes the poets by referring to them as hypocrites; “they say what they do not do.”[3] On the surface, the Qurʾān does not appear to support poetry as a profession. In addition, Sūrah Ash-Shu’ara warns how poetry is inferior to the Qurʾān. Poets lead people away from following the true path toward God. In isolation, this verse shows how poetry is not an act of God-consciousness.

However, this verse raises many questions. For instance, why does God reprimand poetry if the Qurʾān itself represents an immortal form of poetry itself? The answer to this question recalls the poets who were disbelievers and disparaged the role of the Qurʾān as well as God’s eminence and nature. As seen during the pagan era of Arabia, the role of poetry prior to the revelation of the Qurʾān did not center around topics that agreed with the lessons from the Qurʾān. Many commentaries on the Qurʾān attempt to discuss the exact nature of why God disparaged the role of the poet in the Qurʾān and how to reconcile these verses with poetic expression today.

In Pooya Tafsīr, Mahdī Pooya discusses the historical context of poetry prior to and during the Prophet’s lifetime. Poets were known as soothsayers and those who would converse with jinn. For example, the leaders of the tribes such as ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Zubayr (d. 692) and Abū Sufyān ibn al-Ḥārith (d. 636) recited praise for the idols they worshiped and the passions they indulged in.[4] Pagan poets would also condemn the message of the Prophet. Furthermore, in The Study Qurʾān, Seyyed Hossein Nasr explains how poetry represented tribal values, and it was these values of lust, glory, and overindulgence, that the Prophet was trying to eradicate.[5] These are the poets and types of poetry that God warns of in verse 227 of Sūrah Ash-Shuʿarāʾ, “the wrongdoers will soon know at what goal they will end up.”[6] There is a foreboding tone to these verses of the Qurʾān, and God warns those who use poetry for perverse means.

    In Tafsīr al-Mizan, Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʾī also provides another socio-political analysis for the revelation of these verses. He states that God revealed these verses because the disbelievers would accuse the Prophet of being a poet.[7] The disbelievers would recite poems stating that the Prophet’s revelation was not divine but merely his own whimsical musings. Secondly, the disbelievers accused the Prophet of repeating his conversations with jinn to diminish the Prophet’s credibility.[8] These views were detrimental to spreading the Prophet’s message. Ironically, those that spread lies about the Prophet were the subject of divine condemnation in these verses.

    Nevertheless, poetry is not innately evil. As mentioned, poetry can be used in God’s service and remembrance. The pagan poets were juxtaposed with the poets that followed the message of the Prophet, such as Ḥassān ibn Thābit (d. 674), who lived through both the pre-Islamic and the Islamic periods. As an Arabian poet and contemporary of the Prophet, ibn Thābit wrote poems in praise and defense of the Prophet in response to those who wished to slander him. He is widely known as the first poet of Islam, and he even incorporated verses from the Qurʾān into his verses of poetry.[9] This itself shows the poetic quality of the Qurʾān.

    During this period, poetry was inflicted as a tool against individuals or tribes. Ibn Thābit would recite lampoons (hij’) in the Prophet’s defense against Meccan opposition. The Prophet exalted ibn Thābit, and he proclaimed that his poetry was “worse than falling arrows” on the Prophet’s enemies.[10] Ibn Thābit also wrote poetry on what he witnessed in Islamic history. Through his panegyrics and elegies, ibn Thābit memorialized the Prophet. Ibn Thābit not only observed but even played a crucial role in the remarkable spread of Islam. From a literary perspective, this would suggest a strong relationship between Islam and poetry. Poetry was used to spread Islam, the Qurʾān, and the Prophet’s message.

    Upon learning of how the Qurʾān would punish the poets, Ḥassān ibn Thābit approached the Prophet seeking his advice on the matter of his poetry. In response, the Prophet eased his concerns: “You compose poetry in praise of Allah and righteousness and in condemnation of falsehood.”[11] The Prophet praised ibn Thābit’s efforts and encouraged him to keep reciting poetry.[12] Thus, the Prophet highlighted in this interaction that those who seek God and condemn the oppressors through their poetic works belong to another class of poets not rebuked by the Qurʾān.

    While the Qurʾān supports poetry that adheres to its values, the Qurʾān is still not composed of poetry. According to Islamic beliefs, God’s words cannot be labeled as poetry because this would place a limitation upon the infallible nature of the Qurʾān. While human beings can write poetry, they cannot replicate a holy text like the Qurʾān. The Qurʾān is divine and created by a divine Creator. The true nature or form of the Qurʾān is not comprehensible by an ordinary human being, and if one were to label the Qurʾān as poetry then this would imply that a person can fully comprehend all the complexities of the Qurʾān. Thus, while the Qurʾān is poetical to the human reader, it is not a book of poetry. Claiming otherwise would reduce the Qurʾān’s magnificent nature. The Qurʾān surpasses all human understanding and poetical prowess. Since the human being is limited in his nature, poetry has become a means for humanity to understand the Qurʾān and the message of Islam to humankind’s best capacity.

      B. The Qurʾānic Influence on Poetry

      The relationship between the Qurʾān and poetry represents the spiritual journey of the believer in his journey toward reaching God-consciousness and proximity to the Throne of God (‘ArshAllāh). Poetry is used as a means of understanding the self, one’s relationship with the Divine, and reaching spiritual perfection. The Qurʾānic influence on poetry outweighs the influence of poetry on the Qurʾān. In the following sections, this paper will summarize the characteristic links between the Qurʾān and later poetry, as well as delve into the works of specific poets that were influenced by the Qurʾān.

      As stated in the introduction, the Qurʾān is at once highly poetical and reveals the sociopolitical atmosphere of the early Islamic community as the Prophet preached his message. There are three main characteristics of the chapters of the Qurʾān that had a profound impact on poetry during the early Islamic community and during the lifetime of the Prophet: 1) form, 2) theme, and 3) the nature of oral tradition. These three qualities are overlapped, and their relationship will be explained as follows.

      The form and theme of the Qurʾān were a direct response to the Prophet’s community at the time of revelation. The Qurʾān is the main source of Islamic law, but it is also the way Muslims live their life. This is portrayed by the differences in the nature of the Meccan and Medinan chapters. Meccan and Medinan chapters align with the Prophet’s timeline of migration from Mecca to Medina. While Meccan chapters are generally short, Medinan chapters are much longer. The length of the verses also drastically differs. While Meccan chapters focus on moral values and fundamental Islamic principles such as monotheism and the belief in the Day of Judgement, Medinan chapters focus on more complex concepts such as the intrinsic laws of Islam. Thus, the Meccan and Medinan chapters focused on different themes. These differences relate to the Prophet’s audience and the level of his community. In Mecca, the Prophet had just proclaimed his prophecy to a group of idol worshipers. By the time of his migration, the people of Medina were open to hearing the Prophet’s guidance. This led to various stylistic and thematic considerations from Meccan to Medinan chapters. In turn, these themes were discussed by poets in their verses, as will be discussed in the next section.

      As stated, the values of Islam in the Qurʾān spoke to the people about their lifestyle, habits, and nature. This is evident through the nature of the revelation of the Qurʾān. The Qurʾān was revealed orally to the Prophet over a period of 23 years. The most common belief is that the Qurʾān was compiled 20 years after his death. This was since the Qurʾān was not written down as it was revealed, but the verses were recited by memory and orally spread from one person to another. Oral tradition was the norm, and the memorizers of the Qurʾān were able to verify the word of the Qurʾān as it was passed down to the Prophet.

      Furthermore, since the Qurʾān was revealed to a community that followed oral tradition, the Qurʾān was meant to be recited aloud. One reason that explains why Meccan verses were

      short and relied heavily on rhyming words is that these chapters were revealed for the purpose of impressing the poets who did not believe in the Prophet and his message. These words were meant to be heard because of their melodious nature. For instance, in Chapter 81, The Winding Up (Sūrah al-Takwīr), each verse is filled with rhyme. This is clearly a Meccan chapter. Upon hearing these verses, the poets were amazed at the composition and form of each chapter. The effectiveness of the chapter in this form is evident because even if the content of the verses were not enough to convince the Prophet’s enemies, then the poetic qualities of rhyme, rhythm, and sound were enough to question their convictions.

      It is remarkable that the Qurʾān was originally spread by oral tradition. Even in its style of revelation, God did not reveal each sūrah and its verses in the chronological order that is in the Qurʾān today. The Qurʾān was also not a written text. Instead, there was great emphasis placed on memorization, recitation, and the inflection of voice. The Qurʾān that is read today is not a text or book that is in chronological order. Even within individual chapters, one can find many different prophetic stories, lessons, and lifestyles.

      The Qurʾān began as an oral text in which recitation and intonation were of utmost importance. Furthermore, its style of interweaving revelations from various periods had a profound influence on literature and poetry. Lastly, since Arabic was the language of the Arabian tribes, the Qurʾān was revealed to them in Arabic, and the Arabic language has become the universal language of Islamic literature.

      Moreover, the most significant impact the Qurʾān has on poetry is its reminder to recall the nature of divine figures like the Prophet to obtain individual proximity to God. This began with figures such as Ḥassān ibn Thābit as already mentioned and continued through figures in

      Shi’ism. In this tradition, poetry is used to express one’s love for the divine through saint-like figures.

      1. Twelver Shīʿah Poets

      The Twelver Shīʿah community reveres the line of 12 Imāms. These 12 figures are

      considered the light of the extension of the Prophet. Just like the Prophet, the 12 Imāms are believed to be appointed by God to be the divine representatives for mankind on earth. Since the Imāms are the vicegerents as the Prophet was, the Imāms are also guides to the Qurʾān and are believed to embody the Qurʾānic principles. The following poets all encompassed the three greatest areas in which the Qurʾān influenced poetry: form, theme, and oral tradition.

      A. Diʿbil b. ʿAlī al-Khuzāʿī (d. 860)

      Hailing from an entire family of poets, Diʿbil b. ʿAlī al-Khuzāʿī, known commonly as Di’bil, is one of the most renowned Shīʿah poets of the 9th century, and he lived during the lifetimes of the seventh and eighth Imāms, Mūsā al-Kāẓim and ʿAlī al-Riḍā respectively.[13] Di’bil would compose lines of poetry for the Imām of his time to hear, and the theme of his poems reflected Shīʿah history during that period. His poetry reflected his political leanings and his dislike for the rulers of the Abbasid caliphate. Thus, his tone was sarcastic, but he also recited lines in praise of the Prophet and Imāms. His two most well-known texts are Al-Wahida fi Manaqib al-‘Arab wa Mathalibiha and Ṭabaqāt al-Shuʿarāʾ.

      One example of Diʿbil b. ʿAlī al-Khuzāʿī’s most famous poem is titled “Ode of Ta’iyya.” Di’bil wrote this poem composed of 102 verses in dedication to al-Riḍā. It is widely known that Di’bil waited until he was in front of the Imām to orally recite this poem for the first time in his presence in order to honor the Imām with his lines of poetry. It is also believed that al-Riḍā himself added two additional verses to the poem as follows: “And the grave is in Tus; What a sorrowful tragedy it is! This tragedy with sighs would keep blazing in intense grief of the heart until the Day of Resurrection when God will relieve us from the distresses and grief of this earth.”[14] This part of the poem was a reference to the death of al-Riḍā who would be poisoned by al-Maʾmūn.[15] The Imām encouraged Di’bil’s poetic expression to the extent that al-Riḍā himself would add to his poetry. The themes of Di’bil’s verses resemble that of the Qurʾān. Di’bil discusses the Day of Resurrection which all Muslims believe in and that the Qurʾān discusses at length as a core belief of monotheism. The theme of mercy is also prevalent throughout Di’bil’s poem and these last two lines by al-Riḍā. The Qurʾān itself is an exemplar of God’s mercy, and Di’bil attempts to embody this principle from the Qurʾān in his own poetry.

      Moreover, he also wrote verses of poems that directly referenced the Qurʾān and its importance in Islamic society, especially as a means of harkening back to the original message as brought by the Prophet. He recited the following verse of poetry to al-Riḍā, “Schools of verses of the Qurʾān are without recitation and the place of revelation is like courtyards empty of people.”[16] According to Di’bil, those who do not follow the guidance outlined in the Qurʾān are lost. Di’bil would recite similar couplets to al-Riḍā, and he refused to accept any form of payment in return for his poetry.[17]

      In addition to being a poet, Di’bil was also a narrator of ḥadīth.[18] This shows that al-Di’bil was privy to the knowledge of the Imāms and possessed the inner teachings of the Qurʾān and Islam. Furthermore, this shows the intersectionality between poetry and Islamic learning.

        The two go hand-in-hand, and in Di’bil’s case, poetry was not a completely separate entity from Islamic teachings.

        B. Kumayt ibn Zayd al-Asadī (d. 743)

        Secondly, Kumayt ibn Zayd al-Asadī (640-743 CE), known widely as Kumayt was an Arabian poet and the most prominent Shīʿah poet of the era of the Umayyad Caliphate and during the lifetime of the fifth Shīʿah Imām Muḥammad al-Bāqir (d. 733).[19] Kumayt would compose verses in praise of the Banū Hāshim and the Prophet and his family.[20] His most preserved work is known as Hāshimiyyāt and was later gathered as a Shīʿah dīwān or collection of poems. Despite some criticisms of Kumayt’s religious leanings, his poems have remained popular in Shīʿah circles until today. Furthermore, some evidence that supports Kumayt’s adherence to Shīʿah values is that al-Bāqir himself would show concern for him and support him. Kumayt would recite his odes to al-Bāqir, and al-Bāqir would personally listen and hold special gatherings to listen to his poetry and recitations.[21]

        It is notable that in addition to being a poet, Kumayt was also a memorizer of the Qurʾān and a debater of Shīʿah beliefs. In fact, in many of his poems, Kumaty would incorporate verses from the Qurʾān into his poem. In one instance in Hāshimiyyāt in which he was praising the Hashemites, Kumayt quoted from the Qurʾān amid his poem; “We have found a verse concerning you in the verses beginning with Ha` Mim/ The pious and the non-pious from us have explained it/ In other than the verses beginning with Ha` Mim there are many later verses concerning you/ They are signs of awareness for those who doubt.”[22] Upon closer speculation, this first line is in reference to the Verse of Mawaddah. While the word, or rather the characteristic mode of expression, mawaddah, is written six times in the Holy Qurʾān, verse 23 in Chapter 42, Sūrah al-Shūrā, is commonly referred to as the Āyāt al-Mawaddah; “Say, ‘I do not ask you any reward for it except love of [my] relatives.”[23] Kumayt was referencing this verse, since Sūrah al-Shūrā begins with “Ha` Mim.”

          The Shīʿah express transcendental love (mawaddah) for the Prophet’s family. This love is given due to the lofty station of these individuals, which goes hand-in-hand with their infallibility. Mawaddah is a level beyond mahabbah, or simply love, and is a form of walāyah. Mawaddah — the noun form: ةدّوَمَ and its root letters ( د د و ) — denote love, infatuation, friendship, affection, and good relations between people. In this case there exists mawaddah between the Imāms and their followers, the Shīʿah. Mawaddah is a love based on the ties of friendship and close bonds.

          Thus, the transformational and devotional love of mawaddah is a station which the believers have the capacity to strive towards on the path of seeking salvation. It is clear that Kumayt was aiming towards this goal by reciting poetry in conjunction with the Qurʾānic verses meant to induce this love in the individual who contemplates these verses. Lastly, Al-Kumayt himself said that it was through his Hāshimiyyāt that he was able to express love towards the Prophet and his family as a way to approach God when he was in distress.[24]

          C. Farazdaq (d. 730)

          Another figure Tammām ibn Ghālib Abū Firās (641-730 CE), but commonly known as al-Farazdaq, lived at the same time as Kumayt.25 Similarly to the poets Di’bil and Kumayt, Farazdaq was also known to use his poetry as a political instrument to support the Shīʿah Imāms of his lifetime, specifically the fourth Shīʿah Imām ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn, known by Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn (d. 713).[26] Farazdaq’s poetry was also satirical, and he was vocal about his criticisms

            of the Umayyad caliphate.[27]

            Today, al-Farazdaq is best known for his lines of poetry expressing his love and support for the fourth Imām. The following poem was recited in Mecca when Farazdaq, along with many

            other worshippers, were in the presence of Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn.[28] He composed this laudatory ode in deference to the Imām’s characteristics. The poem is as follows:

            This is he whose ability the valley (of Mecca) recognizes, and whom the (Sacred) House recognizes (as do) the sanctuary and the area outside the sanctuary (al-hill). This is the son of the best of all Allah’s servants. This is the pure pious man, the pure eminent man.

            When he comes to touch the corner of the wall of the Kaʿbah it almost grasps the palm of his hand. He takes care to be modest and he is protected from his error. He only speaks when he smiles. None of mankind has within their souls such primacy as he does nor such grace as he does. Whoever knows Allah, knows His friend (wali) Religion is from the House of this man. When Quraysh saw him, their spokesmen told of the outstanding qualities of this man which indicate (his) nobility.[29]

            In Farazdaq’s verses, he incorporates the form of the Qurʾān. He often repeats the same phrases from verse to verse to lay emphasis on Qurʾānic principles such as finding a place of sanctuary away from society to practice acts of worship. Like the previous poets mentioned, Farazdaq also studied the Qurʾān, and it was the Qurʾānic verses that influenced his desire tocompose lines of poetry.[30]
            Thus far, the roles of the poets mentioned from Di’bil, Kumayt, to Farazdaq, were

            focused on the socio-political surroundings, the merits of the Prophet and his family, bringing people close to God, all in the hope of gaining proximity to God and a high station in thehereafter. All these poets took lessons from the Qurʾān as a source of divine wisdom for ordinary believers to strengthen their spirituality and that of their community.

              IV. Concluding Remarks

              From the aforementioned verses in Sūrah Shu’ara’, it is clear that both the Qurʾān and the Prophet supported poets who spoke about the Qurʾān, Islamic virtues, and the praises of the Prophet. Thus, the Qurʾānic nature of poetry is revealed through its form, theme, and oral tradition. Poetry is meant to be orally recited, and Islamic poetry is meant to spread justice and righteousness. This act of poetry uplifts the message of the Qurʾān. Although the Qurʾān is not poetry itself.

              The Prophet supported poets like Ḥassān ibn Thābit during his own time. Likewise, poets played a tremendous role in praising Islamic figures, spreading Qurʾānic messages, and recording Islamic history throughout the development of Shīʿah thought. This tradition is rich in poetry and supplication. Figures such as Diʿbil b. ʿAlī al-Khuzāʿī, Kumayt ibn Zayd al-Asadī, and Farazdaq revered the status of the Shīʿah Imāms as a passageway towards the gate of God. Today, many Shīʿah look towards the poetry of these figures as a pathway toward reaching the inner meaning of the Qurʾān.


              Muhammad Mahdi Shams al-Din al-Amili. The Revolution of Imam al-Husayn. Trans. Ian Keith Anderson Howard. 2014.

              Muhammad Abdul Haq Ansari. “The Doctrine of One Actor: Junayd’s View of Tawhid.” The

              Muslim World 1(1983): 33-56.

              “al-Farazdaq.” Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017,


              Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, (J. Munsell, 1873).

              “Ḥassān ibn Thābit.” Encyclopedia Britannica, May 16, 2007.


              Ibn Hishām, The Life of Muhammad, A Translation of Ishaq’s Sirat RasulAallh, trans. A.

              Guillaume (London: Oxford University Press, 1955).

              Holy Qur’an: Phrase by Phrase English Translation, Trans. Ali Quli Qarai.

              Horovitz, “al- Kumayt b. Zayd al- Asadī.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill, 2010.

              Muhammad Jaffer. “A Translation and Commentary on the Ode of Dibil al Khuzai.” 2021.

              Wilfred Madelung. “The ‘Hāshimiyyāt’ of al-Kumayt and Hāshimī Shi’ism.” Studia Islamica, no. 70 (1989): 5–26.

              Seyyed Hossein Nasr & Leaman (eds.), History of Islamic Philosophy, (Routledge, 2001). Seyyed Hossein Nasr. The Study Qurʾān: A New Translation and Commentary, (HarperOne,


              Mahdī Pooya. Pooya Tafsīr.

              Baqir al-Qurashi. The Life of Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin. (Ansariyan Publications: Qum, 2014). Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimension of Islam, (The University of North Carolina Press,


              al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, (State University of New York Press, 1997).

              Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʾī. Tafsīr al-Mizan.

              Leon Zolondek. Diʻbil B. ʻAlī: The Life & Writings of an Early ʻAbbāsid Poet. (University of Kentucky Press, 1961).

              [1] Holy Qur’an: Phrase by Phrase English Translation. Trans. Ali Quli Qarai. [Qurʾān 26:224]

              [2]Holy Qur’an: Phrase by Phrase English Translation. Trans. Ali Quli Qarai. [Qurʾān 26:225]

              [3] Holy Qur’an: Phrase by Phrase English Translation. Trans. Ali Quli Qarai. [Qurʾān 26:226]

              [4] Mahdi Pooya. Tafsir Pooya. Commentary on Chapter 26, Verses 221-227

              [5] Seyyed Hossein Nasr, The Study Qurʾān: A New Translation and Commentary, (HarperOne, 2015), 2870.

              [6] Holy Qur’an: Phrase by Phrase English Translation. Trans. Ali Quli Qarai. [Qurʾān 26:227]

              [7] Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabāʾī. Tafsīr al-Mizan. [Qurʾān 26:224-226] page 130

              [8] Ibid.

              [9] “Ḥassān ibn Thābit.” Encyclopedia Britannica, May 16, 2007.

              [10] Ibn Hishām, The Life of Muhammad, A Translation of Ishaq’s Sirat RasulAllah, trans. A. Guillaume (London: Oxford University Press, 1955), 628-631.

              [11] Mahdī Pooya. Pooya Tafsīr. Commentary on Chapter 26, Verses 221-227

              [12] al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, (State University of New York Press, 1997), Vol. 8, 131.

              [13] Muhammad Mahdi Shams al-Din al-Amili. The Revolution of Imam al-Husayn. Trans. Ian Keith Anderson Howard. 2014. 86.

              14] Muhammad Jaffer. “A Translation and Commentary on the Ode of Dibil al Khuzai.” 2021.

              [15] Muhammad Mahdi Shams al-Din al-Amili. The Revolution of Imam al-Husayn. Trans. Ian Keith Anderson Howard. 86.

              [16]Ibid., 132.

              [17] Leon Zolondek. Diʻbil B. ʻAlī: The Life & Writings of an Early ʻAbbāsid Poet. (University of Kentucky Press, 1961), 10.

              [18] al-Amili. The Revolution of Imam al-Husayn, 86.

              [19] al-Amili, The Revolution of Imam al-Husayn. Trans. Ian Keith Anderson Howard, 131.

              [20]Wilfred Madelung. “The ‘Hāshimiyyāt’ of al-Kumayt and Hāshimī Shi’ism.” Studia Islamica, no. 70 (1989): 6.

              [21] al-Amili, The Revolution of Imam al-Husayn. Trans. Ian Keith Anderson Howard, 131.

              [22] Horovitz, “al- Kumayt b. Zayd al- Asadī.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill, 2010.

              [23] Holy Qur’an: Phrase by Phrase English Translation. Trans. ʿAlī Quli Qarai. [Qurʾān 42:23]

              [24] al-Amili, The Revolution of Imam al-Husayn, 74.

              [25] “al-Farazdaq.” Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017,

              [26] al-Amili, The Revolution of Imam al-Husayn, 93.

              [27] “al-Farazdaq.” Encyclopedia Britannica.

              [28] Baqir al-Qurashi. The Life of Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin. (Ansariyan Publications: Qum, 2014), 84.

              [29] Ibid.

              [30] Ibid., 155